Another towns


The history of Suzdal. Before Mongol-Tartar invasion (Pre Mongol period).

    The name of Suzdal (Suzhdal) for the first time appeared in chronicle in 1024 as the name of a region, domestic craft industry location on the banks of the Nerl River till the Klyazma River.
Archaeological excavations show that there was a location there not late than in X century. In XI century it was a reach land, included in Kievan State.
    Christian religion spread badly at that place. It was occupied mostly by peasants. Christian preachers were killed or driven away. At that time Yaroslav the Wise ordained new laws, which put the peasants to deeper dependence on the reach. It was a cause of peasants uprising and Yaroslav came to crush it down on his own.
    After the death of Yaroslav the Wise in 1054, his sons partitioned the lands among themselves.
Vsevolod Yaroslavich got Rostov, Suzdal, Beloozero, Land along the Volga River, Pereslavl of the South. His son Vladimir Monomakh got those lands in his turn. During Vladimir Monomakhs reign, Prince Oleg Svyatoslavich, who owned Murom and Chernigov, tried to conquer reach lands of Suzdal. He burned Suzdal when attacked it.
    It was not the end of attacks on the town. In 1107 Volga Bulgarians came on Suzdal. After their attack Monomakh built the first Christian Cathedral of Suzdal the Assumption Cathedral. It has not survived to this day, but according to the information of excavations and reconstructions, leading by A.D.Varganov, it was a huge bricken construction with four columns and one dome.
    Yuri Dolgorukiy ran Rostov-Suzdal principality after Monomakh, his farther.
    Dolgorukiy had called Suzdal a capital town, had placed princely residence in neighbouring Kideksha on the bank of the Nerl River. Consequently he had also taken a waterway along the Kamenka River till Suzdal under control.
    Because of frequent enemy invasions and local uprisings Yuri Dolgorukiy had to build a rampart around the town with walls from arrow-headed oak logs. Rampart has survived to this day. The River Kamenka turned the fortress outside from the North to the West, a graff turned it from the East. There were three entrances with gates and towers.
    At that time merchants and handicraftsmen began coming to Suzdal. Trading quarter (Posad) were expending on the eastern side of the town. It also had a rampart around with oak fence and gates. It was protected by an artificial graff from the North.
    Monasteries also began occupying lands around the town. Already at the end of XI century the Monastery of St. Demetrius of Pechersk was built on a high right bank of the River Kamenka. The Monastery was under protection of Efrem, Kievan metropolitan.
    Several forces concentrated in the town: princely authority, boyars and citizens. All of them asserted their influence over the power struggle of Andrey Bogolyubsky, the son of Yuri Dolgorukiy.
    Suzdal boyars asked Andrey Bogolyubsky to be the prince of the town, keeping popular assembly (veche). Andrey accepted the order, but then refused to report to boyars and started strengthening his autocracy. Amplification of princely authority and following conflict with outstanding boyars was the cause of a plot against Andrei Bogolyubsky, as a result of which he was killed on the night of June 28 to June 29, 1174
    After the death of Andrey Bogolyubsky, residents of Suzdal tried to get out of Vladimirs control (Andrey Bogolyubsky moved the capital of principality to the town of Vladimir), but they failed. Younger brother of Andrey Bogolyubsky, Vsevolod III the Big Nest stayed running Vladimir. Suzdal continued to grow and strengthen in his presence. Vsevolods location was Michailovskaya Sloboda (Michailovskaya settlement) Michali (Mikhali), where the River Mzhary debouched into the River Kamenka.
    In 1212, after the death of Vsevolod, Vladimir-Suzdal principality was partitioned among his numerous sons. In 1217 Suzdal was given to Yuri Vsevolodich. He rebuilt the cathedral, which was made by Yuri Dolgorukiy, his grandfather in 1148. New white-stone 3-domed cathedral was named the Cathedral of the Nativity.